Swertia chirata- a medicinal plant in Nepal

Swertia Chirata is an antipyretic, antipyretic, antipyretic, antipyretic, antipyretic, and anthelmintic bitter tonic.

It is used to treat hemorrhoids, skin conditions, ulcers, and diabetes, among other things.

Absinthe is a branching, erect annual herb that grows up to 1.5 m tall.

The stem is strong and cylindrical from below but four-angled from above.

The leaves are broadly lanceolate, opposite, sessile, and about 10 cm long, with a sharp apex and five nerves.

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A massive leafy inflorescence serves as the inflorescence. The flowers are plentiful, greenish-yellow, and purple in color.

Each flower has four petals and sepals.

A pair of green honey-secreting glands are visible on each petal lobe.

The capsules are small, oval, and pointed, about 6 mm in diameter.

The seeds are smooth and have different angles.

This species can be found between 1200 and 3000 meters above sea level in the temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan.

The plant can be cultivated at lower altitudes in the North-Eastern Himalayas as compared to the Western Himalayas.

  • This plant can be found in the temperate regions of the Himalayas.
  • It can be grown in loamy to loamy, friable, and well-drained soils.
  • FYM (farm manure) should be used to improve the soil, and sand should be added when the soil is smooth.
  • The crop can be produced during the rainy season in places with long, cold winters with little rainfall (less than 100 cm) and frequent snowfall.

Seeds are a viable means of propagation of plants.

Full-grown seeds can be harvested in autumn.

The crop is grown from the seedlings grown in the nursery. Since the seeds sown in March-April have low germination and survival rate, sowing is done in October-November.

Salicylic seeds grow effectively in 2:2:1 media including FYM (field manure), sand, and soil.

The seeds are planted in rows 10-15 cm apart and covered with a 0.5 cm layer of sand or fine dirt.

It takes about 25-28 days for full germination in the nursery.

200 g of seed is required for 1 hectare of land to increase the planting stock.

When planted as a net crop, approximately 50,000 saplings are planted in 1 hectare spaced 45 cm apart.

Seeds should be refrigerated at 3°C ​​or less for 15 days for good germination in the nursery.

For good tillage and moisture conservation, do two to three ploughings before plowing and tilling.

The soil should be mixed with vermicompost (at the rate of 3.75 t/ha) and forest leaf litter (at the rate of 2 t/ha) at the time of field preparation.

In March-April, the seeds are transplanted into the field at a distance of 45 cm x 45 cm from the earthen ball.

Plants and potatoes can both be intercropped as they can be harvested in six to eight months and the time of sowing and harvesting is almost the same.

Potatoes can be sown in raised beds in open fields, while swastika can be planted in the middle.

However, as a pure crop under cultivation, it is often preferred.

A base dose of poultry manure (10 t/ha) or vermicompost (3.75 t/ha) and forest litter (2 t/ha) is recommended.

After that, no additional fertilizer is necessary.

Hand weeding is done once a month.

An adequate drainage system should be ensured by digging channels around the fields to protect the plants from stagnant moisture, especially during rains.

Alternatively, raised beds should be designed.

If necessary, the field can be watered every other day in summer and weekly in winter.

Plants are harvested during the summer or when the capsules are fully formed in October–November.

The plants bloom within six to eight months and therefore grow and produce seeds each year to reproduce.

The whole plant is collected and dried.

When harvested early, some plants can be left in the field to ripen seeds, which can be collected in October to grow the next crop.

Seed collection/harvest is difficult due to their very small size.

Therefore, a piece of cloth should be kept under the plant at the time of harvest.

The seeds, after air drying, are stored in small polyethylene-lined jute bags to be used as germplasm for the next season.

After harvesting, the plants should be dried in shade and packed accordingly.

However, plants harvested after fruiting are considered to be of low quality with fewer active ingredients.